This figure illustrates how brain activity can be localized from the surface of the head.

The red area shows the distribution of the positive charge, and the negative is represented in blue. The dipoles made up of equal and opposite charges. When the dipole is recorded from different electrode positions on the head, techniques similar to triangulating the epicenter of an earthquake can be used to locate the area of the brain  responsible for generating the activity.

Please note that surface activity under certain electrodes does not necessarily mean that the activity is generated  
directly beneath.
 
Source Localization & The Science Behind Our Method

 



 






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